This page contains information about the GRAPPLE software tools that I proposed to use to develop the domain model artefacts in my Applied Research Project for MSc Year 2.  This information includes download links, login details, adaptive thesis written using the GRAPPLE tools, PDF documentation, PowerPoint Presentations, YouTube videos, bibliography, and my own customised installation instructions, bug notes, and email address contacts for individuals involved in the European GRAPPLE project that ran from 2007 to 2011.



GRAPPLE Software Downloads




GALE Login Remote

GAT Login Remote

GALE Login Local


GAT Login Local




David Smits Towards a Generic Distributive Adaptive Hypermedia Environment (Login Required)


Documentation (PDFs)

Welcome to the GRAPPLE project Website

Design specification of a DM definition tool

 Final implementation of the DM definition tool

Final Implementation of the Concept Relationship Type Tool

User Guide on the Concept Adaptation Model Tool




Successful Public Event (PowerPoint)

Adaptative Learning Designs (SlideShare)

Grapple Authoring Tool (GAT) (Short PowerPoint)

Maurice Hendrix, demo at ECTEL2009


Videos (YouTube)


Chapter 6

GRAPPLE: Learning Management Systems Meet Adaptive Learning Environments 

Paul De Bra, David Smits, Kees van der Sluijs, Alexandra I. Cristea, Jonathan Foss, Christian Glahn, and Christina M. Steiner

____________________________________________________________________________________GALE Installation Instructions

STEP 1: Download Prerequisite Software Components

(1) JDK 6

(2) MAVEN 2

(3) Tomcat 6 (don’t use the Windows installer)

(4) MySQL 5.1 (Essentials)

STEP 2: Installation

(1) Create directory structure for GALE as follows







(2) Unpack/install all archives in their respective directories

(3) Create an environment script file to setup your Gale environment. In Windows this would be a batch file (a text file with extension .bat or .cmd) and might look like:

@echo off

set “PACKAGE_HOME=C:\gale”

rem java


set “path=%JAVA_HOME%\bin;%PATH%”

rem tomcat


set “path=%CATALINA_HOME%\bin;%PATH%”

rem maven


set “path=%MAVEN2_HOME%\bin;%PATH%”

rem mysql


set “path=%MYSQL_HOME%\bin;%PATH%”

(4) Download the Gale source from svn to your local gale-source directory.

STEP 3: Setup

(1) Run the script to ensure a proper environment

(2) Start and setup MySQL

– go to ‘/gale/gale-source’ directory

– run (in Windows) ‘start mysqld –standalone —console’

– run ‘mysql -u root < gale.sql’

The following steps will install GALE if you are not going to use eclipse to develop with

GALE. You can skip these steps if you use eclipse.

(3) Go to your ‘/gale/gale-source/master’ directory and run ‘mvn install’

(4) Copy ‘/gale/gale-source/gale/target/gale.war’ to your ‘/gale/tomcat/webapps’ directory

(5) Start Tomcat by running ‘startup’

STEP 4: Development (Optional)

We recommend using eclipse ( to develop with Gale. Run

‘mvn eclipse:eclipse -Dwtpversion=2.0’ in your ‘/gale/gale-source/master’ directory to

setup the project for use in eclipse.

Additional plugins (like maven and subversion for eclipse), can be installed by adding

update sites to eclipse and installing plugins. Proceed as follows:

– maven, update site ‘’, select

‘Maven Integration’ (tree), ‘Maven Central repository index’ and

‘Maven Integration for WTP’

– subclipse, update site ‘’,

select ‘subclipse’

To install plugins, go to ‘Help’, ‘Software Updates…’, select the tab ‘Available

Software’, and add the update site there.

To import the gale projects, choose ‘Import…’ from the ‘File’ menu, select ‘General’,

‘Maven projects’, and browse to ‘/gale/gale-source’.


Email addresses

Vincent Wade (TCD)

Eileen O’Donnell (TCD)

David Smits

Paul de Bra

Maurice Hendrix

Alexandra Cristea (email)

Alexandra Cristea (homepage)

Intelligent and Adaptive Systems Research Group

Office Address (Alexandra Cristea)

Department of Computer Science, Room 336

University of Warwick

Coventry CV4 7AL, UK

tel.: direct:(+44) 24 765 73774; secretary: (+44) 24 7652 3668

fax: +44 24 7657 3024


Installation Bug Notes

Java 7 didn’t work.

When I typed javac – version in a command console window, I got an error:  “could not find or load main class”

I think that this error was to do with a missing tools.jar file in the lib folder.

Note:  On the web, I got this help:

There should be a javac in the $JAVA_HOME/bin folder plus there must be a file $JAVA_HOME/lib/tools.jar.

Probably because of this error, I couldn’t install Tomcat 7.

So, I uninstalled Java 7 and installed Java 6 instead.

I also played around with the Windows environment variables, specifically adding the path C:\gale\jdk\bin (but there were still problems with Java 7).

I also carried out the Java 6 and Tomcat 6 installations logged on as Administrator instead of under my own account.  I had earlier installed Java 7 via my own account.